Showing posts with label Vaccine. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Vaccine. Show all posts

March 12, 2019

6 yrs old Boy Almost Died of Tetanus ($800,000.) Because Parents Kept Him Away From Vaccines


A nurse administers a measles vaccine to a teenager on Feb. 21, 2019.
A new federal report details the frightening, exhausting, and extremely expensive experience of one family whose child contracted a vaccine-preventable disease.
   



                           

A 6-year-old boy who never got his childhood vaccinations spent nearly two months in a hospital and nearly died after contracting tetanus from a cut on his forehead, racking up more than $800,000 in medical expenses.

A new report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention details the exhausting and expensive fight the family had with a highly-preventable disease.

Tetanus is a bacterial infection usually transmitted by soil: think not wearing gloves while gardening and cutting your finger on a thorn or scraping your knee at the park. The bacteria then releases toxins that cause painful spasms and cause a person to lose control of their body, according to the CDC, and lead to broken bones, pneumonia, and difficulty breathing. About 10% of cases are fatal. 


"This case report reminds us that tetanus is severe and life-threatening illness," Dr. Judith Guzman-Cottrill, a pediatric infectious-disease specialist who co-authored the report and cared for the boy, told BuzzFeed News. "It was hard to see him suffer. Vaccinations can prevent these terrible diseases."

Last year, the 6-year-old boy was playing on his family’s farm in Oregon when he scraped his forehead. His family cleaned and sutured the wound, but six days later, his jaw started to clench and lock, and his arms and upper body spasmed uncontrollably. His whole body then began to experience seizures and he started arching his neck and back. Later that day, he struggled to breathe, the CDC said.

The boy's parents called for help and an emergency helicopter took him to a pediatric medical center. He craved water, but couldn’t drink it because he couldn’t open his mouth. Still barely able to breathe, physicians had to stick a tube down his windpipe.

Doctors diagnosed him with a tetanus infection, the first case seen in Oregon in about 30 years, and gave him several rounds of vaccines and a large dose of tetanus immune globulin, a common immunization that helps the body defend itself against diseases.

The boy, who was not identified, spent the next 47 days in intensive care, mostly in a dark room with ear plugs to minimize any stimulation, which intensified his spasms. He also remained hooked up to a breathing machine and was constantly medicated through an IV to help calm his muscles, pain, and blood pressure.


Still, according to the CDC, the boy continued to get worse. Five days later, doctors cut a hole in his neck and inserted a tube to help him breathe.

On the 44th day, he was finally able to sip some clear liquids and, two days later, he left the intensive care unit. After 50 days in the hospital, he was able to walk 20 feet, but still needed to spend 17 more days in a rehabilitation facility to regain the ability to move his legs and body, the CDC said.

When it was all said and done, the family had racked up a bill of $811,929 — nearly 72 times what it usually costs for an average child, the authors reported. His parents also have to pay for the emergency helicopter transport, rehabilitation, and follow-up visits.

One dose of DTaP, the tetanus vaccine, ranges from $24 to $30. Guzman-Cottrill said that about five rounds of the medication could have prevented his infection.

But even after the near-death experience, the family declined the second dose of the vaccine needed to be immunized against tetanus and other recommended immunizations, the CDC reported.

William Schaffner, a vaccine and infectious-disease specialist at Vanderbilt University, told BuzzFeed News that the boy's painful ordeal was "enormously problematic" because he contracted "a disease that we had eliminated virtually in the US."

"It's not by accident but intent that Oregon hasn't seen a case in 30 years and basically every other state could make that statement," he said. "It's a fierce illness. That's why this case is so enormously problematic."


And while the boy not receiving any vaccinations prior to the infection was "troubling," it was the parents' decision to again refuse to vaccinate the child that was hard to comprehend, Schaffner said.

As the boy was recovering, Guzman-Cottrill said she gave his parents educational materials explaining the benefits of all immunizations, but they still refused.

"He could get this again," Schaffner said. "Even though you had a case of tetanus you remain susceptible, so they could go through this whole experience again." 

A nurse administers a measles vaccine to a teenager on Feb. 21, 2019.
Nationwide, there’s been a 95% drop in tetanus infections over the past 80 years since child vaccinations and adult booster shots became more common, the CDC said. However, between 2009 and 2015, 16 people in the US have died from tetanus and doctors have recorded 197 infections.

The CDC report comes as the US is grappling with a growing anti-vaccination movement bolstered by the spread of misleading content social media platforms. Major tech companies like YouTube and Amazon have recently pulled and banned anti-vaxx ads and videos from their sites.


The US is also in the throes of one of the worst measles outbreaks since 1992. In Washington and Oregon, the preventable disease has sickened more than 75 people, many of them children, prompting a visit from the US surgeon general. In Clark County, Washington, parents had to keep more than 800 kids home from school because of exposure to the disease.

"There are many scary diseases of yesteryear, as we say, that could come out of the woodwork," Schaffner said. "The Oregon case is a terribly painful but absolutely vivid lesson and I hope that parents listen to this story."

March 11, 2019

The Evidence on Childhood Vaccine Vs.Measles is Safe Don’t Let Crazies at FB Cause U to Hurt Ur Child


There's strong new evidence that a common childhood vaccine is safe.
A large study released Monday finds no evidence that the vaccine that protects against measles, mumps and rubella increases the risk of autism. The study of children born in Denmark is one of the largest ever of the MMR vaccine.
"The study strongly supports that MMR vaccination does not increase the risk for autism," the authors write in the Annals of Internal Medicine. "We believe our results offer reassurance and provide reliable data." 
The study's first author, epidemiologist Anders Hviid of the Staten Serum Institute in Copenhagen, added in an email: "MMR does not cause autism." 
In the study, researchers analyzed data collected from all children born in Denmark to Danish-born mothers between 1999 and 2010.
Among the 657,461 children included in the analysis, 6,517 were diagnosed with autism over the next decade. But there was no overall increased risk for the developmental disorder among those who received the MMR vaccine when compared with those who had not gotten the vaccine, the researchers found. The researchers also found no increased risk among subgroups of children who might be unusually susceptible to autism, such as those with a brother or sister with the disorder. 
The researchers noted that the study is a follow-up to a similar, large study they conducted in 2002 that was published in the New England Journal of Medicine. That study involved 537,000 Danish children.
"The idea that vaccines cause autism is still around despite our original and other well-conducted studies," Hviid wrote in an email. "Parents still encounter these claims on social media, by politicians, by celebrities, etc."
"We felt that it was time to revisit the link in a larger cohort with more follow-up which also allowed for more comprehensive analyses of different claims such as the idea that MMR causes autism in susceptible children," he added.
Other researchers agree the study provides powerful new evidence supporting the safety of the vaccine.
In an editorial accompanying the study, Dr. Saad Omer and Dr. Inci Yildirim of Emory University write that studies like this can help doctors refute unfounded claims and fears.
"Physicians should do what they do best. They should follow the emerging evidence – including that in vaccine communication science – and use it in their interactions with their patients and as public health advocates," Omer wrote in an email.
Hviid hopes the findings will reassure parents.
"Parents should not avoid vaccinating their children for fear of autism," Hviid wrote. 

February 3, 2018

Fears of Dengue Immunization Will Cause An Epidemic in The Philippines

Fears over a dengue vaccine in the Philippines have led to a big drop in immunisation rates for preventable diseases, officials have warned.
Health Under-Secretary Enrique Domingo said many parents were refusing to get their children vaccinated for polio, chicken pox and tetanus.
The fears centre on Dengvaxia, a drug developed by French company Sanofi. 
Sanofi and local experts say there is no evidence linking the deaths of 14 children to the drug. 
However, the company had warned last year that the vaccine could make the disease worse in some people not infected before. 
Dengue fever affects more than 400 million people each year around the world. Dengvaxia is the world's first vaccine against dengue. 
The mosquito-borne disease is a leading cause of serious illness and death among children in some Asian and Latin American countries, according to the World Health Organization (WHO)

What did Mr Domingo say about immunisation rates?

"Our programmes are suffering... (people) are scared of all vaccines now", he warned.
Mr Domingo added that vaccination rates for some preventable diseases had dropped as much as 60% in recent years - significantly lower that the nationwide target of 85%.

Image copyrightAFPImage captioMr Domingo expressed concerns about potential epidemics in the Philippines - a nation of about 100 million people, many of whom are impoverished.

Asian Tiger Mosquito       Dengue Mosquito

What triggered fears about Dengvaxia?

More than 800,000 children were vaccinated across the country in 2016-17. Fourteen of them have died.
Dengvaxia immunisations were halted last year, as the Philippines launched an investigation into what caused the deaths.
On Saturday, Doctors for Public Welfare (DPW) said a clinical review conducted by Philippine General Hospital forensic pathologists had determined that the deaths were not linked to the vaccine, the Philippine Daily Inquirer reported.

What about Sanofi's reaction?

In a statement, the French company said: "The University of the Philippines-Philippine General Hospital expert panel confirmed... that there is currently no evidence directly linking the Dengvaxia vaccine to any of the 14 deaths.
"In Dengvaxia clinical trials conducted over more than a decade and the over one million doses of the vaccine administered, no deaths related to the vaccine have been reported to us.
"Clinical evidence confirms dengue vaccination in the Philippines will provide a net reduction in dengue disease."
Last November, Sanofi announced that its vaccine could worsen the potentially deadly disease in people not previously infected.
"For those not previously infected by dengue virus, however, the analysis found that in the longer term, more cases of severe disease could occur following vaccination upon a subsequent dengue infection," the firm said in a statement.
Sanofi says Dengvaxia has been registered in 19 countries and launched in 11 of them.
In its latest advice on the vaccine, the WHO said that "until a full review has been conducted, WHO recommends vaccination only in individuals with a documented past dengue infection".

BBCPresentational grey line

Recent vaccine controversies:

  • 'Anti-vax' movement: activities in the past few years by fringe campaigners against immunisation - particularly for measles - lead to falling immunisation rates in France, Italy and the US
  • Polio: Islamist militants in Pakistan have carried out attacks against workers vaccinating children in recent years. The militants say immunisation is a Western campaign to sterilise Pakistani children
  • MMR (measles, mumps and rubella): starts with a publication of a 1998 paper falsely linking the vaccine to autism. This leads to a drop in immunisation rates in the UK and the Republic of Ireland.

December 4, 2017

Second Large HIV Vaccine Study Fuels Hope







Scientists announced the launch of another large HIV vaccine efficacy study on Thursday, fuelling hopes for a protective shot against the virus that causes AIDS, despite past disappointments.

The start of the new trial involving 2,600 women in southern Africa means that for the first time in more than a decade there are now two big HIV vaccine clinical trials taking place at the same time. 

The new study is testing a two-vaccine combination developed by Johnson & Johnson with the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. The first vaccine, also backed by NIH, began a trial last November.

Both studies aim to build on the modest success of a previous trial in Thailand in 2009 when an earlier vaccine showed a 31-percent reduction in infections.


“We’re making progress,” said J&J Chief Scientific Officer Paul Stoffels, who believes it should be possible to achieve effectiveness above 50 percent.

“That is the goal. Hopefully, we get much higher,” he told Reuters.

The new vaccines require one dose to prime the immune system and a second shot to boost the body’s response.

Significantly, J&J’s latest vaccine uses so-called mosaic technology to combine immune-stimulating proteins from different HIV strains, representing different types of virus from around the world, which should produce a “global” vaccine.

One reason why making an HIV vaccine has proved so difficult in the past is the variability of the virus.

Although modern HIV drugs have turned the disease from a death sentence into a chronic condition, a vaccine is still seen as critical in rolling back the pandemic, since the number of people infected is still growing.

Some 37 million individuals around the world currently have HIV and around 1.8 million became newly infected last year.

For the new study, sexually active women in South Africa, Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia, and Zimbabwe will be given the experimental vaccine or a placebo and then followed for three years to see if it prevents infections.

Initial clinical results reported at an AIDS conference in Paris in July showed the mosaic vaccine was safe and elicited a good immune response in healthy volunteers. 

(Reporting by Ben Hirschler; Editing by Andrew Heavens)
Reuters

July 11, 2017

First Ever Gonorrhea Vaccine is Showing Protection


      
 A vaccine has for the first time been shown to protect against the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhoea, scientists in New Zealand say. 
There are fears gonorrhoea is becoming untreatable as antibiotics fail.
The World Health Organization sees developing a vaccine as vital in stopping the global spread of "super-gonorrhoea".
The study of 15,000 young people, published in the Lancet, showed infections were cut by about a third.
About 78 million people pick up the sexually transmitted infection each year, and it can cause infertility. 
But the body does not build up resistance no matter how many times someone is infected.

Unusual start

The vaccine, originally developed to stop an outbreak of meningitis B, was given to about a million adolescents in New Zealand between 2004 and 2006.
Researchers at the University of Auckland analysed data from sexual health clinics and found gonorrhoea cases had fallen 31% in those vaccinated. 
The bacterium that causes meningitis, Neisseria meningitidis, is a very close relative of the species that causes gonorrhoea - Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
It appears the Men B jab was giving "cross-protection" against gonorrhoea. 
Dr Helen Petousis-Harris, one of the researchers, said: "This is the first time a vaccine has shown any protection against gonorrhoea. 
"At the moment, the mechanism behind this immune response is unknown, but our findings could inform future vaccine development." 
Protection seemed to last about two years.

What is gonorrhoea? 

GonorrhoeaImage copyrightCAVALLINI JAMES/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
The disease is caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae and spread by unprotected sex.
Symptoms can include a thick green or yellow discharge from sexual organs, pain when urinating and bleeding between periods. 
However, of those infected, about one in 10 heterosexual men and more than three-quarters of women and gay men have no easily recognisable symptoms.
Untreated infection can lead to infertility, pelvic inflammatory disease and be passed on to a child during pregnancy.

However, the vaccine in question - known as MeNZB - is no longer available.
Many of its components are also in a new Men B jab - called 4CMenB.
The UK is the only country in the world to be rolling 4CMenB out as a routine childhood immunisation. 
Fellow researcher Prof Steven Black, from Cincinnati Children's Hospital in the US, said: "The potential ability of a group B meningococcal vaccine to provide even moderate protection against gonorrhoea would have substantial public health benefits."
The importance of preventing people developing a gonorrhoea infection is of mounting importance as the infection is getting much harder to treat.
Last week, the World Health Organization warned about the global spread of gonorrhoea that could not be treated with antibiotics. 
Dr Teodora Wi, from the WHO, said there had even been three cases - in Japan, France and Spain - where the infection was completely untreatable. 
She said: "There are high hopes that now there's going to be some cross-protection.
"We are still a long way before we develop a vaccine for gonorrhoea, but we have now some evidence that it is possible."
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